All publications can be found at this PubMed link


  • Schmidt, D. R., Gramatikov, I. M. T., Sheen, A., Williams, C. L., Hurwitz, M., Dodge, L. E., Holupka, E., Kiger, W. S., 3rd, Cornwall-Brady, M. R., Huang, W., Mak, H. H., Cormier, K. S., Condon, C., Dane Wittrup, K., Yilmaz, Ö. H., Stevenson, M. A., Down, J. D., Floyd, S. R., Roper, J., & Vander Heiden, M. G. (2023). Ablative radiotherapy improves survival but does not cure autochthonous mouse models of prostate and colorectal cancer. Communications medicine3(1), 108.
  • Lax, B. M., Palmeri, J. R., Lutz, E. A., Sheen, A., Stinson, J. A., Duhamel, L., Santollani, L., Kennedy, A., Rothschilds, A. M., Spranger, S., Sansom, D. M., & Wittrup, K. D. (2023). Both intratumoral regulatory T cell depletion and CTLA-4 antagonism are required for maximum efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America120(31), e2300895120.
  • Santollani, L., & Wittrup, K. D. (2023). Spatiotemporally programming cytokine immunotherapies through protein engineering. Immunological reviews, 10.1111/imr.13234. Advance online publication.
  • Sheen, A., Agarwal, Y., Cheah, K. M., Cowles, S. C., Stinson, J. A., Palmeri, J. R., Sikes, H. D., & Wittrup, K. D. (2023). Tumor-localized catalases can fail to alter tumor growth and transcriptional profiles in subcutaneous syngeneic mouse tumor models. Redox biology64, 102766.
  • Stinson, J. A., Sheen, A., Momin, N., Hampel, J., Bernstein, R., Kamerer, R., Fadl-Alla, B., Samuelson, J., Fink, E., Fan, T. M., & Wittrup, K. D. (2023). Collagen-Anchored Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-12 Safely Reprogram the Tumor Microenvironment in Canine Soft-Tissue Sarcomas. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research29(11), 2110–2122.
  • Tritz, Z. P., Ayasoufi, K., Wolf, D. M., Owens, C. A., Malo, C. S., Himes, B. T., Fain, C. E., Goddery, E. N., Yokanovich, L. T., Jin, F., Hansen, M. J., Parney, I. F., Wang, C., Moynihan, K. D., Irvine, D. J., Wittrup, K. D., Diaz Marcano, R. M., Vile, R. G., & Johnson, A. J. (2023). Anti-PD-1 and Extended Half-life IL2 Synergize for Treatment of Murine Glioblastoma Independent of Host MHC Class I Expression. Cancer immunology research11(6), 763–776.
  • Palmeri, J. R., Lax, B. M., Peters, J. M., Duhamel, L., Stinson, J. A., Santollani, L., Lutz, E. A., Pinney, W., Bryson, B. D., & Wittrup, K. D. (2023). Tregs constrain CD8 + T cell priming required for curative intratumorally anchored anti-4-1BB immunotherapy. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology, 2023.01.30.526116.
  • Zagorulya, M., Yim, L., Morgan, D. M., Edwards, A., Torres-Mejia, E., Momin, N., McCreery, C. V., Zamora, I. L., Horton, B. L., Fox, J. G., Wittrup, K. D., Love, J. C., & Spranger, S. (2023). Tissue-specific abundance of interferon-gamma drives regulatory T cells to restrain DC1-mediated priming of cytotoxic T cells against lung cancer. Immunity56(2), 386–405.e10.


  • Lutz, E. A., Jailkhani, N., Momin, N., Huang, Y., Sheen, A., Kang, B. H., Wittrup, K. D., & Hynes, R. O. (2022). Intratumoral nanobody-IL-2 fusions that bind the tumor extracellular matrix suppress solid tumor growth in mice. PNAS nexus1(5), pgac244.
  • Chang, J. Y. H., Agarwal, Y., Rodrigues, K. A., Momin, N., Ni, K., Read, B. J., Moyer, T. J., Mehta, N. K., Silva, M., Suh, H., Melo, M. B., Wittrup, K. D., & Irvine, D. J. (2022). Co-Anchoring of Engineered Immunogen and Immunostimulatory Cytokines to Alum Promotes Enhanced-Humoral Immunity. Advanced therapeutics5(7), 2100235.
  • Lutz, E., Agarwal, Y., Momin, N., Cowles, S., Palmeri, J. R., Duong, E., … & Wittrup, K. D. (2022). Alum-anchored intratumoral retention improves the tolerability and antitumor efficacy of type i interferon therapies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(36).
  • Cheah K. M., Jun J. V., Wittrup K. D., Raines R. T. (2022). Host-Guest Complexation by β-Cyclodextrin Enhances the Solubility of an Esterified Protein. Mol Pharm. 2022 Aug 29.
  • Cowles S. C., Sheen A., Santollani L., Lutz E. A., Lax B. M., Palmeri J. R., Freeman G. J., Wittrup K. D. (2022). An affinity threshold for maximum efficacy in anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. MAbs. 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2088454.
  • Tabet, A., Agarwal, Y., Stinson, J., Apra, C., Will, V., Manthey, M., Momin, N., Sheen, A., Murdock, M., Santollani, L., Tsai, L., Chiu, I., Lawler, S., Irvine, D. J., Wittrup, K. D., Anikeeva, P. (2022). Reprogramming brain immunosurveillance with engineering cytokines.
  • Wittrup, K. D., Kaufman, H. L., Schmidt, M. M., Irvine, D. J. (2022). Intratumorally anchored cytokine therapy. Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2022 Jun 2:1-8.
  • Duong, E., Fessenden, T. B., Lutz, E., Dinter, T., Yim, L., Blatt, S., Bhutkar, A., Wittrup, K. D., Spranger, S. (2022). Type I interferon activates MHC class I-dressed CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells to promote protective anti-tumor CD8+ T cell immunity. Immunity. 2022 Feb 8;55(2):308-323.e9.
  • Agarwal, Y., Milling, L. E., Chang, J. Y. H., Santollani, L., Sheen, A., Lutz, E. A., Tabet, A., Stinson, J., Ni, K., Rodrigues, K. A., Moyer, T. J., Melo, M. B., Irvine, D. J., Wittrup, K. D. (2022). Intratumourally injected alum-tethered cytokines elicit potent and safer local and systemic anticancer immunity. Nat Biomed Eng 6, 129–143.
  • Kang, B. H., Lax, B. M., Wittrup, K. D. (2022). Yeast Surface Display for Protein Engineering: Library Generation, Screening, and Affinity Maturation. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2491:29-62. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2285-8_2
  • Momin, N., Palmeri, J.R., Lutz, E.A., Jailkhani, N., Mak, H., Tabet, A., Chinn, M. M., Kang, B. H., Spanoudaki, V., Hynes, R. O., Wittrup, K.D. (2022). Maximizing response to intratumoral immunotherapy in mice by tuning local retention. Nat Commun 13, 109.


  • Horton, B. L., Morgan, D. M., Momin, N., Zagorulya, M., Torres-Mejia, E., Bhandarkar, V., Wittrup, K. D., Love,  J. C., Spranger, S. (2021). Lack of CD8+ T cell effector differentiation during priming mediates checkpoint blockade resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. Sci Immunol. 2021 Oct 29;6(64):eabi8800.
  • Kang, B. H., Momin, N., Moynihan, K. D., Silva, M., Li, Y., Irvine, D. J., & Wittrup, K. D. (2021). Immunotherapy-induced antibodies to endogenous retroviral envelope glycoprotein confer tumor protection in mice. PloS one16(4), e0248903.
  • Hu, G., Su, Y., Kang, B. H., Fan, Z., Dong, T., Brown, D. R., Cheah, J., Wittrup, K. D., & Chen, J. (2021). High-throughput phenotypic screen and transcriptional analysis identify new compounds and targets for macrophage reprogramming. Nature communications12(1), 773.
  • Tabet, A., Antonini, M., Sahasrabudhe, A., Park, J., Rosenfeld, D., Koehler, F., Yuk, H., Hanson, S., Stinson, J., Stok, M., Zhao, X., Wang, C., Anikeeva, P. (2021). Modular Integration of Hydrogel Neural Interfaces. ACS Central Science.


  • Li Y., Su Z., Zhao W., Zhang X., Momin N., Zhang C., Wittrup K. D., Dong Y., Irvine D. J., Weiss R. (2022). Multifunctional oncolytic nanoparticles deliver self-replicating IL-12 RNA to eliminate established tumors and prime systemic immunity. Nat Cancer. 2020 Sep;1(9):882-893.
  • Mehta, N. K., Pradhan, R. V., Soleimany, A. P., Moynihan, K. D., Rothschilds, A. M., Momin, N., Rakhra, K., Mata-Fink, J., Bhatia, S. N., Wittrup, K. D., & Irvine, D. J. (2020). Pharmacokinetic tuning of protein-antigen fusions enhances the immunogenicity of T-cell vaccines. Nature biomedical engineering4(6), 636–648.
  • Orozco, J. J., Kenoyer, A. L., Lin, Y., O’Steen, S., Guel, R., Nartea, M. E., Hernandez, A. H., Hylarides, M. D., Fisher, D. R., Balkin, E. R., Hamlin, D. K., Wilbur, D. S., Orcutt, K. D., Wittrup, K. D., Green, D. J., Gopal, A. K., Till, B. G., Sandmaier, B., Press, O. W., & Pagel, J. M. (2020). Therapy of Myeloid Leukemia using Novel Bispecific Fusion Proteins Targeting CD45 and 90Y-DOTA. Molecular cancer therapeutics19(12), 2575–2584.


  • Ma, L., Dichwalkar, T., Chang, J., Cossette, B., Garafola, D., Zhang, A. Q., Fichter, M., Wang, C., Liang, S., Silva, M., Kumari, S., Mehta, N. K., Abraham, W., Thai, N., Li, N., Wittrup, K. D., & Irvine, D. J. (2019). Enhanced CAR-T cell activity against solid tumors by vaccine boosting through the chimeric receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.)365(6449), 162–168.
  • Momin, N., Mehta, N. K., Bennett, N. R., Ma, L., Palmeri, J. R., Chinn, M. M., Lutz, E. A., Kang, B., Irvine, D. J., Spranger, S., & Wittrup, K. D. (2019). Anchoring of intratumorally administered cytokines to collagen safely potentiates systemic cancer immunotherapy. Science translational medicine11(498), eaaw2614.
  • Dréau, D., Moore, L. J., Wu, M., Roy, L. D., Dillion, L., Porter, T., Puri, R., Momin, N., Wittrup, K. D., & Mukherjee, P. (2019). Combining the Specific Anti-MUC1 Antibody TAB004 and Lip-MSA-IL-2 Limits Pancreatic Cancer Progression in Immune Competent Murine Models of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Frontiers in oncology9, 330.
  • Rothschilds, A., Tzeng, A., Mehta, N. K., Moynihan, K. D., Irvine, D. J., & Wittrup, K. D. (2019). Order of administration of combination cytokine therapies can decouple toxicity from efficacy in syngeneic mouse tumor models. Oncoimmunology8(5), e1558678.
  • Rothschilds, A. M., & Wittrup, K. D. (2019). What, Why, Where, and When: Bringing Timing to Immuno-Oncology. Trends in immunology40(1), 12–21.


  • Kauke, MJ, Tisdale, AW, Kelly, RL, Braun, CJ, Hemann, MT, Wittrup, KD (2018). A Raf-Competitive K-Ras Binder Can Fail to Functionally Antagonize Signaling. Mol. Cancer Ther.17,1773-1780.
  • Chen, TF, Li, KK, Zhu, EF, Opel, CF, Kauke, MJ, Kim, H, Atolia, E, Wittrup, KD (2018). Artificial Anti-Tumor Opsonizing Proteins with Fibronectin Scaffolds Engineered for Specificity to Each of the Murine FcγR Types. J. Mol. Biol.430,1786-1798.
  • Angelini, A, Miyabe, Y, Newsted, D, Kwan, BH, Miyabe, C, Kelly, RL, Jamy, MN, Luster, AD, Wittrup, KD (2018). Directed evolution of broadly crossreactive chemokine-blocking antibodies efficacious in arthritis. Nat Commun9,1461.
  • Kelly, RL, Le, D, Zhao, J, Wittrup, KD (2018). Reduction of Nonspecificity Motifs in Synthetic Antibody Libraries. J. Mol. Biol.430,119-130.
  • Green, DJ, O’Steen, S, Lin, Y, Comstock, ML, Kenoyer, AL, Hamlin, DK, Wilbur, DS, Fisher, DR, Nartea, M, Hylarides, MD et al. (2018). CD38-bispecific antibody pretargeted radioimmunotherapy for multiple myeloma and other B-cell malignancies. Blood131,611-620.


  • Kelly, RL, Zhao, J, Le, D, Wittrup, KD (2017). Nonspecificity in a nonimmune human scFv repertoire. MAbs9,1029-1035.
  • Wittrup, KD (2017). Antitumor Antibodies Can Drive Therapeutic T Cell Responses. Trends Cancer3,615-620.
  • Kelly, RL, Geoghegan, JC, Feldman, J, Jain, T, Kauke, M, Le, D, Zhao, J, Wittrup, KD (2017). Chaperone proteins as single component reagents to assess antibody nonspecificity. MAbs9,1036-1040.
  • Kauke, MJ, Traxlmayr, MW, Parker, JA, Kiefer, JD, Knihtila, R, McGee, J, Verdine, G, Mattos, C, Wittrup, KD (2017). An engineered protein antagonist of K-Ras/B-Raf interaction. Sci Rep7,5831.
  • Cheal, SM, Fung, EK, Patel, M, Xu, H, Guo, HF, Zanzonico, PB, Monette, S, Wittrup, KD, Cheung, NV, Larson, SM et al. (2017). Curative Multicycle Radioimmunotherapy Monitored by Quantitative SPECT/CT-Based Theranostics, Using Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting Strategy in Colorectal Cancer. J. Nucl. Med.58,1735-1742.
  • Chen, TF, Sazinsky, SL, Houde, D, DiLillo, DJ, Bird, J, Li, KK, Cheng, GT, Qiu, H, Engen, JR, Ravetch, JV et al. (2017). Engineering Aglycosylated IgG Variants with Wild-Type or Improved Binding Affinity to Human Fc Gamma RIIA and Fc Gamma RIIIAs. J. Mol. Biol.429,2528-2541.
  • Yang, NJ, Kauke, MJ, Sun, F, Yang, LF, Maass, KF, Traxlmayr, MW, Yu, Y, Xu, Y, Langer, RS, Anderson, DG et al. (2017). Cytosolic delivery of siRNA by ultra-high affinity dsRNA binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res.45,7602-7614.
  • Kwan, BH, Zhu, EF, Tzeng, A, Sugito, HR, Eltahir, AA, Ma, B, Delaney, MK, Murphy, PA, Kauke, MJ, Angelini, A et al. (2017). Integrin-targeted cancer immunotherapy elicits protective adaptive immune responses. J. Exp. Med.214,1679-1690.
  • Smith, TT, Moffett, HF, Stephan, SB, Opel, CF, Dumigan, AG, Jiang, X, Pillarisetty, VG, Pillai, SPS, Wittrup, KD, Stephan, MT et al. (2017). Biopolymers codelivering engineered T cells and STING agonists can eliminate heterogeneous tumors. J. Clin. Invest.127,2176-2191.
  • Jain, T, Sun, T, Durand, S, Hall, A, Houston, NR, Nett, JH, Sharkey, B, Bobrowicz, B, Caffry, I, Yu, Y et al. (2017). Biophysical properties of the clinical-stage antibody landscape. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.114,944-949.


  • Sharkey, B, Pudi, S, Wallace Moyer, I, Zhong, L, Prinz, B, Baruah, H, Lynaugh, H, Kumar, S, Wittrup, KD, Nett, JH et al. . Purification of common light chain IgG-like bispecific antibodies using highly linear pH gradients. MAbs9,257-268.
  • Tzeng, A, Kauke, MJ, Zhu, EF, Moynihan, KD, Opel, CF, Yang, NJ, Mehta, N, Kelly, RL, Szeto, GL, Overwijk, WW et al. (2016). Temporally Programmed CD8α+ DC Activation Enhances Combination Cancer Immunotherapy. Cell Rep17,2503-2511.
  • Green, DJ, Frayo, SL, Lin, Y, Hamlin, DK, Fisher, DR, Frost, SH, Kenoyer, AL, Hylarides, MD, Gopal, AK, Gooley, TA et al. (2016). Comparative Analysis of Bispecific Antibody and Streptavidin-Targeted Radioimmunotherapy for B-cell Cancers. Cancer Res.76,6669-6679.
  • Moynihan, KD, Opel, CF, Szeto, GL, Tzeng, A, Zhu, EF, Engreitz, JM, Williams, RT, Rakhra, K, Zhang, MH, Rothschilds, AM et al. (2016). Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses. Nat. Med.22,1402-1410.
  • Kelly, RL, Yu, Y, Sun, T, Caffry, I, Lynaugh, H, Brown, M, Jain, T, Xu, Y, Wittrup, KD (2016). Target-independent variable region mediated effects on antibody clearance can be FcRn independent. MAbs8,1269-1275.
  • Traxlmayr, MW, Kiefer, JD, Srinivas, RR, Lobner, E, Tisdale, AW, Mehta, NK, Yang, NJ, Tidor, B, Wittrup, KD (2016). Strong Enrichment of Aromatic Residues in Binding Sites from a Charge-neutralized Hyperthermostable Sso7d Scaffold Library. J. Biol. Chem.291,22496-22508.
  • de Picciotto, S, Dickson, PM, Traxlmayr, MW, Marques, BS, Socher, E, Zhao, S, Cheung, S, Kiefer, JD, Wand, AJ, Griffith, LG et al. (2016). Design Principles for SuCESsFul Biosensors: Specific Fluorophore/Analyte Binding and Minimization of Fluorophore/Scaffold Interactions. J. Mol. Biol.428,4228-4241.
  • Singh, AP, Maass, KF, Betts, AM, Wittrup, KD, Kulkarni, C, King, LE, Khot, A, Shah, DK (2016). Evolution of Antibody-Drug Conjugate Tumor Disposition Model to Predict Preclinical Tumor Pharmacokinetics of Trastuzumab-Emtansine (T-DM1). AAPS J18,861-75.
  • Bornholdt, ZA, Turner, HL, Murin, CD, Li, W, Sok, D, Souders, CA, Piper, AE, Goff, A, Shamblin, JD, Wollen, SE et al. (2016). Isolation of potent neutralizing antibodies from a survivor of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak. Science351,1078-83.
  • Maass, KF, Kulkarni, C, Betts, AM, Wittrup, KD (2016). Determination of Cellular Processing Rates for a Trastuzumab-Maytansinoid Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) Highlights Key Parameters for ADC Design. AAPS J18,635-46.
  • Schütz, M, Batyuk, A, Klenk, C, Kummer, L, de Picciotto, S, Gülbakan, B, Wu, Y, Newby, GA, Zosel, F, Schöppe, J et al. (2016). Generation of Fluorogen-Activating Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (FADAs) as Versatile Sensor Tools. J. Mol. Biol.428,1272-1289.
  • Cheal, SM, Xu, H, Guo, HF, Lee, SG, Punzalan, B, Chalasani, S, Fung, EK, Jungbluth, A, Zanzonico, PB, Carrasquillo, JA et al. (2016). Theranostic pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using picomolar affinity ⁸⁶Y- or ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTA-Bn binding scFv C825/GPA33 IgG bispecific immunoconjugates. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging43,925-37.


  • Maass, KF, Kulkarni, C, Quadir, MA, Hammond, PT, Betts, AM, Wittrup, KD (2015). A Flow Cytometric Clonogenic Assay Reveals the Single-Cell Potency of Doxorubicin. J Pharm Sci104,4409-4416.
  • Van Deventer, JA, Kelly, RL, Rajan, S, Wittrup, KD, Sidhu, SS (2015). A switchable yeast display/secretion system. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.28,317-25.
  • Angelini, A, Chen, TF, de Picciotto, S, Yang, NJ, Tzeng, A, Santos, MS, Van Deventer, JA, Traxlmayr, MW, Wittrup, KD (2015). Protein Engineering and Selection Using Yeast Surface Display. Methods Mol. Biol.1319,3-36.
  • Kelly, RL, Sun, T, Jain, T, Caffry, I, Yu, Y, Cao, Y, Lynaugh, H, Brown, M, Vásquez, M, Wittrup, KD et al. (2015). High throughput cross-interaction measures for human IgG1 antibodies correlate with clearance rates in mice. MAbs7,770-7.
  • Yang, NJ, Liu, DV, Sklaviadis, D, Gui, DY, Vander Heiden, MG, Wittrup, KD (2015). Antibody-mediated neutralization of perfringolysin o for intracellular protein delivery. Mol. Pharm.12,1992-2000.
  • Zhu, EF, Gai, SA, Opel, CF, Kwan, BH, Surana, R, Mihm, MC, Kauke, MJ, Moynihan, KD, Angelini, A, Williams, RT et al. (2015). Synergistic innate and adaptive immune response to combination immunotherapy with anti-tumor antigen antibodies and extended serum half-life IL-2. Cancer Cell27,489-501.
  • Tzeng, A, Kwan, BH, Opel, CF, Navaratna, T, Wittrup, KD (2015). Antigen specificity can be irrelevant to immunocytokine efficacy and biodistribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.112,3320-5.
  • Wang, S, Mata-Fink, J, Kriegsman, B, Hanson, M, Irvine, DJ, Eisen, HN, Burton, DR, Wittrup, KD, Kardar, M, Chakraborty, AK et al. (2015). Manipulating the selection forces during affinity maturation to generate cross-reactive HIV antibodies. Cell160,785-797.
  • Rouha, H, Badarau, A, Visram, ZC, Battles, MB, Prinz, B, Magyarics, Z, Nagy, G, Mirkina, I, Stulik, L, Zerbs, M et al. (2015). Five birds, one stone: neutralization of α-hemolysin and 4 bi-component leukocidins of Staphylococcus aureus with a single human monoclonal antibody. MAbs7,243-54.


  • Paulus, GL, Nelson, JT, Lee, KY, Wang, QH, Reuel, NF, Grassbaugh, BR, Kruss, S, Landry, MP, Kang, JW, Vander Ende, E et al. (2014). A graphene-based physiometer array for the analysis of single biological cells. Sci Rep4,6865.
  • Yao, X, Williamson, C, Adalsteinsson, VA, D’Agostino, RS, Fitton, T, Smaroff, GG, William, RT, Wittrup, KD, Love, JC (2014). Tumor cells are dislodged into the pulmonary vein during lobectomy. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.148,3224-31.e1-5.
  • Liu, DV, Yang, NJ, Wittrup, KD (2014). A Nonpolycationic Fully Proteinaceous Multiagent System for Potent Targeted Delivery of siRNA. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids3,e162.
  • de Picciotto, S, Imperiali, B, Griffith, LG, Wittrup, KD (2014). Equilibrium and dynamic design principles for binding molecules engineered for reagentless biosensors. Anal. Biochem.460,9-15.
  • Bak, SP, Barnkob, MS, Wittrup, KD, Chen, J (2013). CD8+ T-cell responses rapidly select for antigen-negative tumor cells in the prostate. Cancer Immunol Res1,393-401.
  • Yao, X, Choudhury, AD, Yamanaka, YJ, Adalsteinsson, VA, Gierahn, TM, Williamson, CA, Lamb, CR, Taplin, ME, Nakabayashi, M, Chabot, MS et al. (2014). Functional analysis of single cells identifies a rare subset of circulating tumor cells with malignant traits. Integr Biol (Camb)6,388-98.
  • Van Deventer, JA, Wittrup, KD (2014). Yeast surface display for antibody isolation: library construction, library screening, and affinity maturation. Methods Mol. Biol.1131,151-81.


  • Schmidt, MM, Townson, SA, Andreucci, AJ, King, BM, Schirmer, EB, Murillo, AJ, Dombrowski, C, Tisdale, AW, Lowden, PA, Masci, AL et al. (2013). Crystal structure of an HSA/FcRn complex reveals recycling by competitive mimicry of HSA ligands at a pH-dependent hydrophobic interface. Structure21,1966-78.
  • Xu, Y, Roach, W, Sun, T, Jain, T, Prinz, B, Yu, TY, Torrey, J, Thomas, J, Bobrowicz, P, Vásquez, M et al. (2013). Addressing polyspecificity of antibodies selected from an in vitroyeast presentation system: a FACS-based, high-throughput selection and analytical tool. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.26,663-70.
  • Adalsteinsson, VA, Tahirova, N, Tallapragada, N, Yao, X, Campion, L, Angelini, A, Douce, TB, Huang, C, Bowman, B, Williamson, CA et al. (2013). Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines. Integr Biol (Camb)5,1272-81.
  • Reuel, NF, Grassbaugh, B, Kruss, S, Mundy, JZ, Opel, C, Ogunniyi, AO, Egodage, K, Wahl, R, Helk, B, Zhang, J et al. (2013). Emergent properties of nanosensor arrays: applications for monitoring IgG affinity distributions, weakly affined hypermannosylation, and colony selection for biomanufacturing. ACS Nano7,7472-82.
  • Pirie, CM, Liu, DV, Wittrup, KD (2013). Targeted cytolysins synergistically potentiate cytoplasmic delivery of gelonin immunotoxin. Mol. Cancer Ther.12,1774-82.
  • Yao, X, Labelle, M, Lamb, CR, Dugan, JM, Williamson, CA, Spencer, DR, Christ, KR, Keating, RO, Lee, WD, Paradis, GA et al. (2013). Determination of 35 cell surface antigen levels in malignant pleural effusions identifies CD24 as a marker of disseminated tumor cells. Int. J. Cancer133,2925-33.
  • Su, X, Yang, N, Wittrup, KD, Irvine, DJ (2013). Synergistic antitumor activity from two-stage delivery of targeted toxins and endosome-disrupting nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules14,1093-102.
  • Kwong, B, Gai, SA, Elkhader, J, Wittrup, KD, Irvine, DJ (2013). Localized immunotherapy via liposome-anchored Anti-CD137 + IL-2 prevents lethal toxicity and elicits local and systemic antitumor immunity. Cancer Res.73,1547-58.
  • Chen, TF, de Picciotto, S, Hackel, BJ, Wittrup, KD (2013). Engineering fibronectin-based binding proteins by yeast surface display. Meth. Enzymol.523,303-26.
  • Yazaki, PJ, Lee, B, Channappa, D, Cheung, CW, Crow, D, Chea, J, Poku, E, Li, L, Andersen, JT, Sandlie, I et al. (2013). A series of anti-CEA/anti-DOTA bispecific antibody formats evaluated for pre-targeting: comparison of tumor uptake and blood clearance. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.26,187-93.
  • Mata-Fink, J, Kriegsman, B, Yu, HX, Zhu, H, Hanson, MC, Irvine, DJ, Wittrup, KD (2013). Rapid conformational epitope mapping of anti-gp120 antibodies with a designed mutant panel displayed on yeast. J. Mol. Biol.425,444-56.


  • Yazaki, PJ, Lee, B, Channappa, D, Cheung, CW, Crow, D, Chea, J, Poku, E, Li, L, Andersen, JT, Sandlie, I et al. (2013). A series of anti-CEA/anti-DOTA bispecific antibody formats evaluated for pre-targeting: comparison of tumor uptake and blood clearance. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.26,187-93.
  • Mata-Fink, J, Kriegsman, B, Yu, HX, Zhu, H, Hanson, MC, Irvine, DJ, Wittrup, KD (2013). Rapid conformational epitope mapping of anti-gp120 antibodies with a designed mutant panel displayed on yeast. J. Mol. Biol.425,444-56.
  • Bak, SP, Barnkob, MS, Bai, A, Higham, EM, Wittrup, KD, Chen, J (2012). Differential requirement for CD70 and CD80/CD86 in dendritic cell-mediated activation of tumor-tolerized CD8 T cells. J. Immunol.189,1708-16.
  • Spangler, JB, Manzari, MT, Rosalia, EK, Chen, TF, Wittrup, KD (2012). Triepitopic antibody fusions inhibit cetuximab-resistant BRAF and KRAS mutant tumors via EGFR signal repression. J. Mol. Biol.422,532-44.
  • Orcutt, KD, Rhoden, JJ, Ruiz-Yi, B, Frangioni, JV, Wittrup, KD (2012). Effect of small-molecule-binding affinity on tumor uptake in vivo: a systematic study using a pretargeted bispecific antibody. Mol. Cancer Ther.11,1365-72.
  • Wittrup, KD, Verdine, GL (2012). Protein engineering for therapeutics, part B. Preface. Meth. Enzymol.503,xiii-xiv.
  • Wittrup, KD, Thurber, GM, Schmidt, MM, Rhoden, JJ (2012). Practical theoretic guidance for the design of tumor-targeting agents. Meth. Enzymol.503,255-68.
  • Wittrup, KD, Verdine, GL (2012). Protein engineering for therapeutics, Part A. Preface. Meth. Enzymol.502,xiii-xiv.
  • Hackel, BJ, Neil, JR, White, FM, Wittrup, KD (2012). Epidermal growth factor receptor downregulation by small heterodimeric binding proteins. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.25,47-57.
  • Rhoden, JJ, Wittrup, KD (2012). Dose dependence of intratumoral perivascular distribution of monoclonal antibodies. J Pharm Sci101,860-7.


  • Boersma, YL, Chao, G, Steiner, D, Wittrup, KD, Plückthun, A (2011). Bispecific designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor inhibit A431 cell proliferation and receptor recycling. J. Biol. Chem.286,41273-85.
  • Schiefner, A, Chatwell, L, Körner, J, Neumaier, I, Colby, DW, Volkmer, R, Wittrup, KD, Skerra, A (2011). A disulfide-free single-domain V(L) intrabody with blocking activity towards huntingtin reveals a novel mode of epitope recognition. J. Mol. Biol.414,337-55.
  • Ackerman, ME, Lai, JI, Pastan, I, Wittrup, KD (2011). Exploiting bias in a non-immune human antibody library to predict antigenicity. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.24,845-53.
  • Orcutt, KD, Slusarczyk, AL, Cieslewicz, M, Ruiz-Yi, B, Bhushan, KR, Frangioni, JV, Wittrup, KD (2011). Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging. Nucl. Med. Biol.38,223-33.
  • Pirie, CM, Hackel, BJ, Rosenblum, MG, Wittrup, KD (2011). Convergent potency of internalized gelonin immunotoxins across varied cell lines, antigens, and targeting moieties. J. Biol. Chem.286,4165-72.
  • Swers, JS, Yeung, YA, Wittrup, KD (2011). Integrated mimicry of B cell antibody mutagenesis using yeast homologous recombination. Mol. Biotechnol.47,57-69.


  • Orcutt, KD, Slusarczyk, AL, Cieslewicz, M, Ruiz-Yi, B, Bhushan, KR, Frangioni, JV, Wittrup, KD (2011). Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging. Nucl. Med. Biol.38,223-33.
  • Pirie, CM, Hackel, BJ, Rosenblum, MG, Wittrup, KD (2011). Convergent potency of internalized gelonin immunotoxins across varied cell lines, antigens, and targeting moieties. J. Biol. Chem.286,4165-72.
  • Spangler, JB, Neil, JR, Abramovitch, S, Yarden, Y, White, FM, Lauffenburger, DA, Wittrup, KD (2010). Combination antibody treatment down-regulates epidermal growth factor receptor by inhibiting endosomal recycling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107,13252-7.
  • Hackel, BJ, Ackerman, ME, Howland, SW, Wittrup, KD (2010). Stability and CDR composition biases enrich binder functionality landscapes. J. Mol. Biol.401,84-96.
  • Higham, EM, Shen, CH, Wittrup, KD, Chen, J (2010). Cutting edge: delay and reversal of T cell tolerance by intratumoral injection of antigen-loaded dendritic cells in an autochthonous tumor model. J. Immunol.184,5954-8.
  • Higham, EM, Wittrup, KD, Chen, J (2010). Activation of tolerogenic dendritic cells in the tumor draining lymph nodes by CD8+ T cells engineered to express CD40 ligand. J. Immunol.184,3394-400.
  • Hackel, BJ, Wittrup, KD (2010). The full amino acid repertoire is superior to serine/tyrosine for selection of high affinity immunoglobulin G binders from the fibronectin scaffold. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.23,211-9.
  • Orcutt, KD, Ackerman, ME, Cieslewicz, M, Quiroz, E, Slusarczyk, AL, Frangioni, JV, Wittrup, KD (2010). A modular IgG-scFv bispecific antibody topology. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.23,221-8.


  • Orcutt, KD, Ackerman, ME, Cieslewicz, M, Quiroz, E, Slusarczyk, AL, Frangioni, JV, Wittrup, KD (2010). A modular IgG-scFv bispecific antibody topology. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.23,221-8.
  • Schmidt, MM, Wittrup, KD (2009). A modeling analysis of the effects of molecular size and binding affinity on tumor targeting. Mol. Cancer Ther.8,2861-71.
  • Liu, DV, Maier, LM, Hafler, DA, Wittrup, KD . Engineered interleukin-2 antagonists for the inhibition of regulatory T cells. J. Immunother.32,887-94.
  • Tasumi, S, Velikovsky, CA, Xu, G, Gai, SA, Wittrup, KD, Flajnik, MF, Mariuzza, RA, Pancer, Z (2009). High-affinity lamprey VLRA and VLRB monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106,12891-6.
  • Rakestraw, JA, Sazinsky, SL, Piatesi, A, Antipov, E, Wittrup, KD (2009). Directed evolution of a secretory leader for the improved expression of heterologous proteins and full-length antibodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng.103,1192-201.
  • Ackerman, M, Levary, D, Tobon, G, Hackel, B, Orcutt, KD, Wittrup, KD . Highly avid magnetic bead capture: an efficient selection method for de novo protein engineering utilizing yeast surface display. Biotechnol. Prog.25,774-83.
  • Maier, LM, Anderson, DE, Severson, CA, Baecher-Allan, C, Healy, B, Liu, DV, Wittrup, KD, De Jager, PL, Hafler, DA (2009). Soluble IL-2RA levels in multiple sclerosis subjects and the effect of soluble IL-2RA on immune responses. J. Immunol.182,1541-7.


  • Sazinsky, SL, Ott, RG, Silver, NW, Tidor, B, Ravetch, JV, Wittrup, KD (2008). Aglycosylated immunoglobulin G1 variants productively engage activating Fc receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105,20167-72.
  • Antipov, E, Cho, AE, Wittrup, KD, Klibanov, AM (2008). Highly L and D enantioselective variants of horseradish peroxidase discovered by an ultrahigh-throughput selection method. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105,17694-9.
  • Bai, A, Higham, E, Eisen, HN, Wittrup, KD, Chen, J (2008). Rapid tolerization of virus-activated tumor-specific CD8+ T cells in prostate tumors of TRAMP mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105,13003-8.
  • Ackerman, ME, Pawlowski, D, Wittrup, KD (2008). Effect of antigen turnover rate and expression level on antibody penetration into tumor spheroids. Mol. Cancer Ther.7,2233-40.
  • Hackel, BJ, Kapila, A, Wittrup, KD (2008). Picomolar affinity fibronectin domains engineered utilizing loop length diversity, recursive mutagenesis, and loop shuffling. J. Mol. Biol.381,1238-52.
  • Howland, SW, Tsuji, T, Gnjatic, S, Ritter, G, Old, LJ, Wittrup, KD (2008). Inducing efficient cross-priming using antigen-coated yeast particles. J. Immunother.31,607-19.
  • Thurber, GM, Schmidt, MM, Wittrup, KD (2008). Antibody tumor penetration: transport opposed by systemic and antigen-mediated clearance. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.60,1421-34.
  • Thurber, GM, Wittrup, KD (2008). Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis of antibody fragment diffusion and endocytic consumption in tumor spheroids. Cancer Res.68,3334-41.
  • Howarth, M, Liu, W, Puthenveetil, S, Zheng, Y, Marshall, LF, Schmidt, MM, Wittrup, KD, Bawendi, MG, Ting, AY (2008). Monovalent, reduced-size quantum dots for imaging receptors on living cells. Nat. Methods5,397-9.
  • Schmidt, MM, Thurber, GM, Wittrup, KD (2008). Kinetics of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody internalization: effects of affinity, bivalency, and stability. Cancer Immunol. Immunother.57,1879-90.
  • Ackerman, ME, Chalouni, C, Schmidt, MM, Raman, VV, Ritter, G, Old, LJ, Mellman, I, Wittrup, KD (2008). A33 antigen displays persistent surface expression. Cancer Immunol. Immunother.57,1017-27.
  • Howland, SW, Wittrup, KD (2008). Antigen release kinetics in the phagosome are critical to cross-presentation efficiency. J. Immunol.180,1576-83.
  • Thurber, GM, Schmidt, MM, Wittrup, KD (2008). Factors determining antibody distribution in tumors. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.29,57-61.


  • Yeung, YA, Finney, AH, Koyrakh, IA, Lebowitz, MS, Ghanbari, HA, Wands, JR, Wittrup, KD (2007). Isolation and characterization of human antibodies targeting human aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase. Hum Antibodies16,163-76.
  • Lipovsek, D, Antipov, E, Armstrong, KA, Olsen, MJ, Klibanov, AM, Tidor, B, Wittrup, KD (2007). Selection of horseradish peroxidase variants with enhanced enantioselectivity by yeast surface display. Chem. Biol.14,1176-85.
  • Lippow, SM, Wittrup, KD, Tidor, B (2007). Computational design of antibody-affinity improvement beyond in vivo maturation. Nat. Biotechnol.25,1171-6.
  • Gai, SA, Wittrup, KD (2007). Yeast surface display for protein engineering and characterization. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.17,467-73.
  • Campbell, CJ, Wittrup, KD (2007). Protein technologies. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.18,293-4.
  • Thurber, GM, Zajic, SC, Wittrup, KD (2007). Theoretic criteria for antibody penetration into solid tumors and micrometastases. J. Nucl. Med.48,995-9.
  • Lipovsek, D, Lippow, SM, Hackel, BJ, Gregson, MW, Cheng, P, Kapila, A, Wittrup, KD (2007). Evolution of an interloop disulfide bond in high-affinity antibody mimics based on fibronectin type III domain and selected by yeast surface display: molecular convergence with single-domain camelid and shark antibodies. J. Mol. Biol.368,1024-41.
  • Krauland, EM, Peelle, BR, Wittrup, KD, Belcher, AM (2007). Peptide tags for enhanced cellular and protein adhesion to single-crystalline sapphire. Biotechnol. Bioeng.97,1009-20.


  • Chao, G, Lau, WL, Hackel, BJ, Sazinsky, SL, Lippow, SM, Wittrup, KD (2006). Isolating and engineering human antibodies using yeast surface display. Nat Protoc1,755-68.
  • Swers, JS, Widom, A, Phan, U, Springer, TA, Wittrup, KD (2006). A high affinity human antibody antagonist of P-selectin mediated rolling. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.350,508-13.
  • Rakestraw, JA, Baskaran, AR, Wittrup, KD . A flow cytometric assay for screening improved heterologous protein secretion in yeast. Biotechnol. Prog.22,1200-8.
  • Cochran, JR, Kim, YS, Lippow, SM, Rao, B, Wittrup, KD (2006). Improved mutants from directed evolution are biased to orthologous substitutions. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.19,245-53.
  • Colby, DW, Cassady, JP, Lin, GC, Ingram, VM, Wittrup, KD (2006). Stochastic kinetics of intracellular huntingtin aggregate formation. Nat. Chem. Biol.2,319-23.
  • Piatesi, A, Howland, SW, Rakestraw, JA, Renner, C, Robson, N, Cebon, J, Maraskovsky, E, Ritter, G, Old, L, Wittrup, KD et al. (2006). Directed evolution for improved secretion of cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 from yeast. Protein Expr. Purif.48,232-42.
  • Sivasubramanian, A, Chao, G, Pressler, HM, Wittrup, KD, Gray, JJ (2006). Structural model of the mAb 806-EGFR complex using computational docking followed by computational and experimental mutagenesis. Structure14,401-14.
  • Midelfort, KS, Wittrup, KD (2006). Context-dependent mutations predominate in an engineered high-affinity single chain antibody fragment. Protein Sci.15,324-34.
  • Kim, YS, Bhandari, R, Cochran, JR, Kuriyan, J, Wittrup, KD (2006). Directed evolution of the epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain for expression in yeast. Proteins62,1026-35.
  • Rakestraw, A, Wittrup, KD (2006). Contrasting secretory processing of simultaneously expressed heterologous proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng.93,896-905.


  • Peelle, BR, Krauland, EM, Wittrup, KD, Belcher, AM (2005). Probing the interface between biomolecules and inorganic materials using yeast surface display and genetic engineering. Acta Biomater1,145-54.
  • Rao, BM, Driver, I, Lauffenburger, DA, Wittrup, KD (2005). High-affinity CD25-binding IL-2 mutants potently stimulate persistent T cell growth. Biochemistry44,10696-701.
  • Peelle, BR, Krauland, EM, Wittrup, KD, Belcher, AM (2005). Design criteria for engineering inorganic material-specific peptides. Langmuir21,6929-33.
  • Rao, BM, Lauffenburger, DA, Wittrup, KD (2005). Integrating cell-level kinetic modeling into the design of engineered protein therapeutics. Nat. Biotechnol.23,191-4.


  • Colby, DW, Chu, Y, Cassady, JP, Duennwald, M, Zazulak, H, Webster, JM, Messer, A, Lindquist, S, Ingram, VM, Wittrup, KD et al. (2004). Potent inhibition of huntingtin aggregation and cytotoxicity by a disulfide bond-free single-domain intracellular antibody. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101,17616-21.
  • Midelfort, KS, Hernandez, HH, Lippow, SM, Tidor, B, Drennan, CL, Wittrup, KD (2004). Substantial energetic improvement with minimal structural perturbation in a high affinity mutant antibody. J. Mol. Biol.343,685-701.
  • Rao, BM, Driver, I, Lauffenburger, DA, Wittrup, KD (2004). Interleukin 2 (IL-2) variants engineered for increased IL-2 receptor alpha-subunit affinity exhibit increased potency arising from a cell surface ligand reservoir effect. Mol. Pharmacol.66,864-9.
  • Colby, DW, Garg, P, Holden, T, Chao, G, Webster, JM, Messer, A, Ingram, VM, Wittrup, KD (2004). Development of a human light chain variable domain (V(L)) intracellular antibody specific for the amino terminus of huntingtin via yeast surface display. J. Mol. Biol.342,901-12.
  • Chao, G, Cochran, JR, Wittrup, KD (2004). Fine epitope mapping of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies through random mutagenesis and yeast surface display. J. Mol. Biol.342,539-50.
  • Colby, DW, Kellogg, BA, Graff, CP, Yeung, YA, Swers, JS, Wittrup, KD (2004). Engineering antibody affinity by yeast surface display. Meth. Enzymol.388,348-58.
  • Graff, CP, Chester, K, Begent, R, Wittrup, KD (2004). Directed evolution of an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen scFv with a 4-day monovalent dissociation half-time at 37 degrees C. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.17,293-304.
  • Cochran, JR, Kim, YS, Olsen, MJ, Bhandari, R, Wittrup, KD (2004). Domain-level antibody epitope mapping through yeast surface display of epidermal growth factor receptor fragments. J. Immunol. Methods287,147-58.
  • Johns, TG, Adams, TE, Cochran, JR, Hall, NE, Hoyne, PA, Olsen, MJ, Kim, YS, Rothacker, J, Nice, EC, Walker, F et al. (2004). Identification of the epitope for the epidermal growth factor receptor-specific monoclonal antibody 806 reveals that it preferentially recognizes an untethered form of the receptor. J. Biol. Chem.279,30375-84.
  • Swers, JS, Kellogg, BA, Wittrup, KD (2004). Shuffled antibody libraries created by in vivohomologous recombination and yeast surface display. Nucleic Acids Res.32,e36.
  • Coughlan, CM, Walker, JL, Cochran, JC, Wittrup, KD, Brodsky, JL (2004). Degradation of mutated bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor in the yeast vacuole suggests post-endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control. J. Biol. Chem.279,15289-97.
  • Grovender, EA, Kellogg, B, Singh, J, Blom, D, Ploegh, H, Wittrup, KD, Langer, RS, Ameer, GA (2004). Single-chain antibody fragment-based adsorbent for the extracorporeal removal of beta2-microglobulin. Kidney Int.65,310-22.
  • Mohr L, Yeung A, Aloman C, Wittrup D, Wands JR. Antibody-directed therapy for human hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 127(5 Suppl 2):S225-31, 2004.


  • Rao, BM, Girvin, AT, Ciardelli, T, Lauffenburger, DA, Wittrup, KD (2003). Interleukin-2 mutants with enhanced alpha-receptor subunit binding affinity. Protein Eng.16,1081-7.
  • Bhatia, SK, Swers, JS, Camphausen, RT, Wittrup, KD, Hammer, DA . Rolling adhesion kinematics of yeast engineered to express selectins. Biotechnol. Prog.19,1033-7.
  • Orr, BA, Carr, LM, Wittrup, KD, Roy, EJ, Kranz, DM . Rapid method for measuring ScFv thermal stability by yeast surface display. Biotechnol. Prog.19,631-8.
  • Graff, CP, Wittrup, KD (2003). Theoretical analysis of antibody targeting of tumor spheroids: importance of dosage for penetration, and affinity for retention. Cancer Res.63,1288-96.
  • Feldhaus, MJ, Siegel, RW, Opresko, LK, Coleman, JR, Feldhaus, JM, Yeung, YA, Cochran, JR, Heinzelman, P, Colby, D, Swers, J et al. (2003). Flow-cytometric isolation of human antibodies from a nonimmune Saccharomyces cerevisiae surface display library. Nat. Biotechnol.21,163-70.


  • Reardon, KF, Lee, KH, Wittrup, KD, Hatzimanikatis, V (2002). Jay Bailey as mentor–the students’ perspective. Biotechnol. Bioeng.79,484-9.
  • Yeung, YA, Wittrup, KD . Quantitative screening of yeast surface-displayed polypeptide libraries by magnetic bead capture. Biotechnol. Prog.18,212-20.


  • Reardon, KF, Lee, KH, Wittrup, KD, Hatzimanikatis, V (2002). Jay Bailey as mentor–the students’ perspective. Biotechnol. Bioeng.79,484-9.
  • Yeung, YA, Wittrup, KD . Quantitative screening of yeast surface-displayed polypeptide libraries by magnetic bead capture. Biotechnol. Prog.18,212-20.

2000 and earlier

  • Wittrup, KD (2001). Protein engineering by cell-surface display. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.12,395-9.
  • Kieke, MC, Sundberg, E, Shusta, EV, Mariuzza, RA, Wittrup, KD, Kranz, DM (2001). High affinity T cell receptors from yeast display libraries block T cell activation by superantigens. J. Mol. Biol.307,1305-15.
  • Boder, ET, Wittrup, KD (2000). Yeast surface display for directed evolution of protein expression, affinity, and stability. Meth. Enzymol.328,430-44.
  • Wittrup, KD (2000). The single cell as a microplate well. Nat. Biotechnol.18,1039-40.
  • Boder, ET, Midelfort, KS, Wittrup, KD (2000). Directed evolution of antibody fragments with monovalent femtomolar antigen-binding affinity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.97,10701-5.
  • Shusta, EV, Holler, PD, Kieke, MC, Kranz, DM, Wittrup, KD (2000). Directed evolution of a stable scaffold for T-cell receptor engineering. Nat. Biotechnol.18,754-9.
  • Boder, ET, Wittrup, KD . Optimal screening of surface-displayed polypeptide libraries. Biotechnol. Prog.14,55-62.
  • Holler, PD, Holman, PO, Shusta, EV, O’Herrin, S, Wittrup, KD, Kranz, DM (2000). In vitro evolution of a T cell receptor with high affinity for peptide/MHC. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.97,5387-92.
  • Bannister, SJ, Wittrup, KD (2000). Glutathione excretion in response to heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng.68,389-95.
  • VanAntwerp, JJ, Wittrup, KD . Fine affinity discrimination by yeast surface display and flow cytometry. Biotechnol. Prog.16,31-7.
  • Woycechowsky, KJ, Wittrup, KD, Raines, RT (1999). A small-molecule catalyst of protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Chem. Biol.6,871-9.
  • Wittrup, KD (1999). Phage on display. Trends Biotechnol.17,423-4.
  • Shusta, EV, Kieke, MC, Parke, E, Kranz, DM, Wittrup, KD (1999). Yeast polypeptide fusion surface display levels predict thermal stability and soluble secretion efficiency. J. Mol. Biol.292,949-56.
  • Becker, F, Block-Alper, L, Nakamura, G, Harada, J, Wittrup, KD, Meyer, DI (1999). Expression of the 180-kD ribosome receptor induces membrane proliferation and increased secretory activity in yeast. J. Cell Biol.146,273-84.
  • Kieke, MC, Shusta, EV, Boder, ET, Teyton, L, Wittrup, KD, Kranz, DM (1999). Selection of functional T cell receptor mutants from a yeast surface-display library. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.96,5651-6.
  • Shusta, EV, VanAntwerp, J, Wittrup, KD (1999). Biosynthetic polypeptide libraries. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.10,117-22.
  • Arnold, CE, Parekh, RN, Yang, W, Wittrup, KD (1998). Leader peptide efficiency correlates with signal recognition particle dependence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng.59,286-93.
  • VanAntwerp, JJ, Wittrup, KD (1998). Thermodynamic characterization of affinity maturation: the D1.3 antibody and a higher-affinity mutant. J. Mol. Recognit.11,10-3.
  • Cho, BK, Kieke, MC, Boder, ET, Wittrup, KD, Kranz, DM (1998). A yeast surface display system for the discovery of ligands that trigger cell activation. J. Immunol. Methods220,179-88.
  • Kowalski, JM, Kelly, RM, Konisky, J, Clark, DS, Wittrup, KD (1998). Purification and functional characterization of a chaperone from Methanococcus jannaschii. Syst. Appl. Microbiol.21,173-8.
  • Shusta, EV, Raines, RT, Plückthun, A, Wittrup, KD (1998). Increasing the secretory capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of single-chain antibody fragments. Nat. Biotechnol.16,773-7.
  • Kowalski, JM, Parekh, RN, Mao, J, Wittrup, KD (1998). Protein folding stability can determine the efficiency of escape from endoplasmic reticulum quality control. J. Biol. Chem.273,19453-8.
  • Kieke, MC, Cho, BK, Boder, ET, Kranz, DM, Wittrup, KD (1997). Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display. Protein Eng.10,1303-10.
  • Kowalski, JM, Parekh, RN, Wittrup, KD (1998). Secretion efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor mutants lacking disulfide bonds is correlated with thermodynamic stability. Biochemistry37,1264-73.
  • Boder, ET, Wittrup, KD (1997). Yeast surface display for screening combinatorial polypeptide libraries. Nat. Biotechnol.15,553-7.
  • Parekh, RN, Wittrup, KD . Expression level tuning for optimal heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Prog.13,117-22.
  • Zabriskie, DW, Wittrup, KD (1996). Biochemical engineering IX-interdisciplinary foundations for creating new biotechnology: II. Biotechnol. Bioeng.52,183.
  • Zabriskie, DW, Wittrup, KD (1996). Biochemical engineering IX-interdisciplinary foundations for creating new biotechnology: I. Biotechnol. Bioeng.52,1-2.
  • Robinson, AS, Bockhaus, JA, Voegler, AC, Wittrup, KD (1996). Reduction of BiP levels decreases heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem.271,10017-22.
  • Parekh, RN, Shaw, MR, Wittrup, KD . An integrating vector for tunable, high copy, stable integration into the dispersed Ty delta sites of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Prog.12,16-21.
  • Wittrup, KD (1995). Disulfide bond formation and eukaryotic secretory productivity. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.6,203-8.
  • Robinson, AS, Wittrup, KD . Constitutive overexpression of secreted heterologous proteins decreases extractable BiP and protein disulfide isomerase levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Prog.11,171-7.
  • Arnold, CE, Wittrup, KD (1994). The stress response to loss of signal recognition particle function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem.269,30412-8.
  • Wittrup, KD, Robinson, AS, Parekh, RN, Forrester, KJ (1994). Existence of an optimum expression level for secretion of foreign proteins in yeast. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.745,321-30.
  • Wittrup, KD, Westerman, RJ, Desai, R (1994). Fluorescence array detector for large-field quantitative fluorescence cytometry. Cytometry16,206-13.
  • Robinson, AS, Hines, V, Wittrup, KD (1994). Protein disulfide isomerase overexpression increases secretion of foreign proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnology (N.Y.)12,381-4.
  • Wittrup, KD, Weber, AL, Tsai, P (1993). Microencapsulation selection for isolation of yeast mutants with increased secretion of Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase. Biotechnol. Bioeng.42,351-6.
  • Shaw, MR, Schiek, R, Wittrup, KD . Stochastic stimulation of 2 mu multicopy plasmid amplification in yeast. Biotechnol. Prog.9,160-5.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1991). Comments on a segregated model of recombinant cultures: authors’ reply. Biotechnol. Bioeng.38,1364-5.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE, Ratzkin, B, Patel, A (1990). Propagation of an amplifiable recombinant plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: flow cytometry studies and segregated modeling. Biotechnol. Bioeng.35,565-77.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1990). Mathematical modeling of a single-cell enzyme assay. Biotechnol. Bioeng.35,525-32.
  • Meilhoc, E, Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1989). Application of flow cytometric measurement of surface IgG in kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody synthesis and secretion by murine hybridoma cells. J. Immunol. Methods121,167-74.
  • Budd, ME, Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE, Campbell, JL (1989). DNA polymerase I is required for premeiotic DNA replication and sporulation but not for X-ray repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol.9,365-76.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1988). A single-cell assay of beta-galactosidase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cytometry9,394-404.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1988). A segregated model of recombinant multicopy plasmid propagation. Biotechnol. Bioeng.31,304-10.
  • Wittrup, KD, Bailey, JE (1988). A mathematical model of recombinational amplification of the 2 mu plasmid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Theor. Biol.130,481-92.